In the concept of Islamic, leader is the final and fundamental. He occupies the highest position in the Islamic society. In a community, the leader has a very strategic role in arranging pattern and movement. His skills in the leading will be moving his people on the goal to be achieved, namely a prosperous life is blessed of God Almighty.
The leader is at a decisive position toward the pipe line his people. If a community or a nation has a leader a prime, productive and skilled in the development of creativity, then the pipe line his people will achieve success. On the contrary, when a community or a nation led by a person who has much shortcomings, both in the field of science, managerial, as well as the responsibility, then it can certainly will decline even destruction.
Thus, Islam lookeds at that a leadership has a strategic position in realizing a society that Baldatun Thoyyibatun Warobbun Ghofur. I.e. the Islamic society that in applying the principles of Islam, so it is able to reach the level of prosperity and the welfare of the equitable by justice for all societies.
However, at this time many muslim leaders are not even a little bit using Islam as identity, but become leaders who deny the values of Islam itself. Many leaders voiced about the struggle of Islamic values, but they do corruption and give priority of personal interests and their group away from Islamic values.
Indonesia is the country that the majority of the inhabitants are Muslim, but it is still a little figure of the Islamic leaders in the life of society and state that is capable of holding the mandate and responsibility. The values of Islam are not embedded in the hearts of the leaders, so that Islam is not able to be applied in the form of mandate and responsibilities in leadership.
According to Qurish Shihab in “Wawasan Al- Qur’an”, the meaning of mandate is associated with many things, one of them fair treatment. Justice demanded is not against the group or only the Muslims, but cover the whole of mankind even whole beings.
About the duties and responsibilities of the Islamic leader, Quraish Shihab interprate verse 41 in his book “Wawasan Al-Quran”. They who get the godsend as leaders get a variety of tasks that are, First found the prayer. Prayer is a symbol of good relations between the being with God.
Second, the Zakat. Zakat is the symbol of the attention devoted to the weak society. The third, the goodness command that include all kinds of virtues, customs, and cultures that are in line with Islamic values. Fourth, prohibit the ugliness of all-encompassing evil that is not in accordance with Islamic values.
In doing their duties and responsibilities, leaders are required to always carry out deliberations, that is exchanging thoughts with whom it deems appropriate in order to achieve the common goodness. In addition, the leaders are also expected to be able to take advantage of all its potential in order to achieve maximum results in accordance with expectations.
The consequences of the Commission charged against the leaders, specified the obligation of obedience to the people against them. As for obedience to the leader cannot stand on its own but has to do with obedience to God and his Messenger. As it is written on the letter of an-Nisa verse 59. That is, when a command contrary to Islamic values so the society doesn’t need to obey his orders.
Understanding the Islamic Leadership
Leadership is a process to affect the mind, feeling, and the behavior of others in the form of individuals and groups to achieve a specific goal. The process affects that can last even though no strong bonds in one organization because the leadership operates on functions rather than structure.
As for the Islamic leadership is system of leadership that is identical with the Islamic principles, that is leadership always holding firm to Islamic values. Islamic leadership is based on more precise on the system and the way that practiced in the leading. So the Islamic leadership is a leadership who practiced Islamic values.
So, not only is visible on the outside packaging of sheer as Islamic organizations, Islamic movements, or other Islamic sects which do not exhibit the principles of Islamic values, then it can’t be called the Islamic leadership. But if in practicing has been to implement Islamic values, then it can be said to be a form of Islamic leadership, although not in Islamic packaging.
The Principle Of Islamic Values
Islamic principles are subject matter that underlying how the Islamic leadership is able to be implemented in the life of either nation, State or organization. Quraish Shihab argues that in general the Islamic values embodied in four principal principles. Those are unity of God, balance, free will, and responsibility.
First, The Unity of God Principle. This principle takes human that oneness of God contains the consequences of conviction that all things originate and end in God. This principle of generating entities that circulated in units of unity of God. The entities, among others, the unity of humanity, the unity of nature, the unity of the world and the hereafter and others.
Second, The Principle Of Balance. This principle takes the muslim believed that all things are created by God in condition of balance and harmony. This principle demands the man not only living a balanced, harmonious, and in tune with itself, but also the demand to create the three things in the life of society.
Third, the principle of free will. This principle takes a muslim believes that God has absolute freedom, but God also confers to man the freedom to choose the two ways, that is good or bad. A good man on the side of God is a human being who is able to use the freedom in the implementation of unity of God and balance.
Fourth, the principle of responsibility is the manifestation of the third principles above. Humans are able to apply the principles of unity and balance, will be able to be a good person who is able to charge both individually and collectively.
The fourth principle above mentioned above, should be coloring activities every muslim, including activities in activity leadership. Thus Strengthening Islamic principles in leadership is very important. Looked at in the current era of leadership in the world started to leave the values of humanity, justice, and freedom of thinking.
By upholding the principle of the Islamic emphasis on human values, in leadership, great expectations will manifest prosperity together. Because, basically, the leadership aims to prosper society. So it would appear that blessed by God, so that the leadership is able to manifest the life of a prosperous country as written in the Koran that is present “Baldatun Thayyibatun Wa Rabbun Ghafur”.